The spring issue of the Bulletin on Health features a study examining the impact of Medicare eligibility at age 65 on cancer detection and outcomes. The researchers show that cancer detection shifts sharply upward at the age of Medicare eligibility, while cancer mortality shifts downward with Medicare eligibility. The effects are concentrated among women, especially among racial minorities. Also featured in this issue of the free Bulletin on Health are: a study of how a diabetes diagnosis affects subsequent health care and health outcomes, a study of how an informational letter about the tax penalty for lacking health insurance affected insurance coverage and mortality, and a profile of NBER research associate Adriana Lleras-Muney.
In a study of Japan’s cotton spinning industry in the early 20th century, Serguey Braguinsky, Atsushi Ohyama, Tetsuji Okazaki, and Chad Syverson find that the most successful firms first experimented with technologically challenging, vertically differentiated products, then expanded their product portfolios horizontally.
Using industry-level estimates of worker displacement due to automation and of worker reinstatement due to new tasks, Daron Acemoglu and Pascual Restrepo show that since 1987, the combined effects of these two forces has been to shift towards greater demand for skills in the US economy.
Using new data and rigorous empirical analysis, this new NBER book examines various aspects of the relationship between immigration, innovation, and entrepreneurship, including the effects of changes in the number of immigrants and their skill composition on the rate of innovation; the relationship between high-skilled immigration and entrepreneurship; the differences between immigrant and native entrepreneurs; and the post-graduation migration patterns of STEM doctoral recipients. The volume also examines the role of the US higher education system and US visa policy in attracting foreign students for graduate study and retaining them after graduation.
The euro was launched in 2002 in hopes of providing Europe with an international currency of the stature of the dollar. Today, its use is largely confined to the European Union and former French colonies in Africa. Analysis featured in the April edition of The NBER Digest finds that this is because of an inadequate supply of high-quality euro-denominated assets that international investors and central banks can use as stores of value. Also in this issue of the free monthly Digest are summaries of studies examining
advance market commitments, H-1B visa allocation methods, the
sleep-productivity, the effect of
prize structure on an innovation competition, and consumer valuation of product licensing.
Recent government data suggest that in 2017, 4.2 percent of all US adults — 11.2 million people — met diagnostic criteria for serious mental illness, and 7.2 percent — 19.2 million people — had substance abuse disorders, and at least 70,237 individuals died from drug overdoses. Research reviewed in the current edition of the NBER Reporter finds major benefits from expanded access to treatment through Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansions. Also in this edition of the free, quarterly Reporter, in which NBER affiliates summarize work in sub-fields of economics, are articles on
costs of health care, and
market concentration, and financial market dynamics
While the magnitude of the US opioid crisis is fairly well understood, its causes are less well established. This issue is the topic of study of a paper summarized in the current issue of the free Bulletin on Retirement and Disability. The research finds that opioid abuse jumps shortly after a move and remains at the new higher level for up to five years after the move, suggesting that place-specific factors may explain about one-fourth of opioid abuse. Also featured in this issue: a summary of research on how perception of pain differs by education level, an exploration of trends in work and disability application among people with mental illness, and a joint Q&A with NBER research associates Richard Frank and Ellen Meara, both of Harvard University.
New NBER affiliates are appointed through a highly competitive process that begins with a call for nominations in January. Candidates are evaluated based on their research records and their capacity to contribute to the NBER's activities by program directors and steering committees. New affiliates must hold primary academic appointments in North America. On January 1, 2020, there were 1,581 NBER-affiliated researchers based at 180 institutions.